目前分類:Class Note: 大一英文 (15)

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1.fusion (n.)a small safety part in an electrical device or piece of machinery which causes it to stop working if the electric current is too high, and so prevents fires or other dangers:
My hairdrier's stopped working - I think the fuse has blown/UK ALSO gone (= broken).
Have you tried changing the fuse?

2.precarious (a.)in a dangerous state because not safe or firmly fixed:
The lorry was lodged in a very precarious way, with its front wheels hanging over the cliff.

3.codependency (n.)a psychological condition or a relationship in which a person is controlled or manipulated by another who is affected with a pathological condition (as an addiction to alcohol or heroin) broadly : dependence on the needs of or control by another

4.akin (a.)similar; having some of the same qualities:
They speak a language akin to French.

5.drug dealer (n.)a person who sells illegal drugs

6.accrue (v.)to increase in number or amount over a period of time:
Interest will accrue on the account at a rate of 7%.
Little benefit will accrue to London (= London will receive little benefit) from the new road scheme.

7.treasury (n.)(the Treasury) [sing.+sing./pl. v.] (in Britain, the US and some other countries) the government department that controls public money

8.overdose (n.)too much of a drug taken or given at one time, either intentionally or by accident:
When he was 17 he took an overdose of sleeping pills and nearly died.
Jimi Hendrix died of a drug(s) overdose.

9.breakdown (n.)a failure to work or be successful:
I had a breakdown (= my car stopped working) in the middle of the road.
Both sides blamed each other for the breakdown of talks.

10.premier (a.)best or most important:
He's one of the nation's premier scientists.

11.asset (n.)something valuable belonging to a person or organization which can be used for the payment of debts:
A company's assets can consist of cash, investments, buildings, machinery, specialist knowledge or copyright material such as music or computer software.
liquid assets (= money, or things which can easily be changed into money)

12.intertwine (v.)to twist or be twisted together, or to be connected so as to be difficult to separate:
The town's prosperity is inextricably intertwined with the fortunes of the factory.
The trees' branches intertwined to form a dark roof over the path

13.flunk (v.)to fail an exam or course of study:
I flunked my second year exams and was lucky not to be thrown out of college

14.prestigious (a.)greatly respected and admired, usually because of being important:
a prestigious literary award
a prestigious university

15.dumb (a.)permanently or temporarily unable to speak:
He's been deaf and dumb since birth.
She was struck dumb by what she had seen.

16.twist (v.)to turn something, especially repeatedly, or to turn or wrap one thing around another:
The path twists and turns for over a mile.
She sat there nervously twisting the ring around on her finger.
She twisted her head (round) so she could see what was happening.
Twist the rope tightly round that post over there.

17.aggressive (a.)behaving in an angry and violent way towards another person:
Men tend to be more aggressive than women.
If I criticize him, he gets aggressive and starts shouting.

18.endowment (v.)to give a large amount of money to pay for creating a college or hospital, etc. or to provide an income for it:
The state of Michigan has endowed three institutes to do research for industry.
This hospital was endowed by the citizens of Strasbourg in the 16th century.

19.portfolio (n.)a collection of drawings, documents, etc. that represent a person's, especially an artist's, work:
She's trying to build up a portfolio of work to show during job interviews.

20.swoon (v.)to feel a lot of pleasure, love, etc. because of something or someone:
The audience swooned with delight.

21.evolve (v.)to develop gradually, or to cause something or someone to develop gradually:
Humans evolved from apes.
The company has evolved over the years into a multi-million dollar organization.
Bacteria are evolving resistance to antibiotics.

22.dismal (a.)sad and without hope:
a dismal expression

23.shaggy (a.)having or covered with long, rough and untidy hair, or (of hair) long, rough and untidy:
a shaggy dog/pony
the shaggy coat of a sheep
a shaggy rug

24.mutt (n.)a person who behaves in a silly or careless way:
Come on you mutts, play harder!

25.bloodsucker (n.)an animal or insect that sucks blood from other animals:
Leeches and mosquitoes are bloodsuckers.

26.engrossed (a.)giving all your attention to something; absorbed:
She was so engrossed by/in the book that she forgot the cakes in the oven.
They were so engrossed in/with what they were doing that they didn't hear me come in.

27.yearning (n.)A yearning for something is a very strong desire for it.
He spoke of his yearning for another child...
He always had a yearning to be a schoolteacher.
= longing

28vam|pire bat (vampire bats) (n.)A vampire bat is a bat from South America which feeds by sucking the blood of other animals.

29.conceit (n.)when you are too proud of yourself and your actions:
The conceit of that man is incredible!

31.chaste (a.)not having had sex, or only having a sexual relationship with the person whom you are married to:
In the past, a woman needed to be chaste to make a good marriage.
They exchanged a few chaste kisses (= not expressing sexual desire).

32.hormonal (n.)any of various chemicals made by living cells which influence the development, growth, sex, etc. of an animal and are carried around the body in the blood:
male and female hormones
growth hormones

33.gland (n.)an organ of the body or of a plant which secretes (= produces) liquid chemicals that have various purposes:
The glands in my neck are a bit swollen.

34.lovesick (a.)sad because the person you love does not love you:
He was moping around like a lovesick teenager.

35.clerical (a.)opposed to organized religion having influence in politics and public life:
an anti-clerical law/constitution

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1.offering (n.)something that you give or offer to someone:
a peace offering
a sacrificial offering

2.prosperous (a.)successful, usually by earning a lot of money:
In a prosperous country like this, no one should go hungry.

3.anonymous (a.)made or done by someone whose name is not known or not made public:
The money was donated by an anonymous benefactor.
Police said an anonymous caller warned that a bomb was about to go off.
An attempt to implant an embryo using an egg from an anonymous woman donor was unsuccessful.
He received an anonymous letter threatening to disclose details of his affair if he didn't pay the money.
For reasons of personal safety, the informant wishes to remain anonymous.

4.chronical (a.)(especially of a disease or something bad) continuing for a long time:
chronic diseases/conditions
chronic arthritis/pain
a chronic invalid
There is a chronic shortage of teachers.

5.relentless (a.)continuing in a severe or extreme way:
relentless criticism/pressure
relentless heat

6.sequester (v.)to take temporary possession of someone's property until they have paid back the money that they owe or until they have obeyed a court order

7.lavish (a.)more than enough, especially if expensive; very generous:
lavish gifts/promises/praise
lavish spending
lavish banquets
The evening was a lavish affair with glorious food and an endless supply of champagne.
The lavish production makes this musical truly memorable.

8.pepper (n.)a greyish black or creamy coloured powder produced by crushing dry peppercorns, which is used to give a spicy hot taste to food:
freshly ground black pepper
salt and pepper

9.divvy up (v.)If you divvy up something such as money or food, you share it out. (INFORMAL)
Johnson was free to divvy up his share of the money as he chose.
= divide

10.duo (n.)a pair, especially of singers, musicians or other performers:
the comedy duo Laurel and Hardy

11.nonjudgmental (a.)avoiding judgments based on one's personal and especially moral standards 

12.gingerly (adv.)in a way that is careful or cautious:
Holding her painful back, she sat down gingerly on the bench.

13.arduous (a.)difficult, tiring and needing a lot of effort:
an arduous climb/task/journey

14.downside (n.)the disadvantage of a situation:
The downside of living here, of course, is that it is expensive.
Unemployment, inflation and greater inequality are often the downside of a market economy.

15.catch fire
1 : to become ignited 
2 : to become fired with enthusiasm 
3 : to increase greatly in scope, popularity, interest, or effectiveness

16.orchestrate (v.)to arrange something carefully, and sometimes unfairly, so as to achieve a desired result:
Their victory was largely a result of their brilliantly orchestrated election campaign.

17.underground (a./adv.)below the surface of the earth; below ground:
an underground cave/passage/cable
Moles live underground.

18.crackdown (n.)A crackdown is strong official action that is taken to punish people who break laws.
...anti-government unrest that ended with the violent army crackdown.

19.confiscate (v.)to take a possession away from someone when you have the right to do so, usually as a punishment and often for a limited period, after which it is returned to the owner:
Miss Edwards has confiscated my comics till the end of term!
His passport was confiscated by the police to prevent him from leaving the country.

20.tuck into (or tuck in)(v.)If someone tucks into a meal or tucks in, they start eating enthusiastically or hungrily. (BRIT INFORMAL)
She tucked into a breakfast of bacon and eggs...
Tuck in, it's the last hot food you'll get for a while.

21.hit-and-miss (a.) If something is hit-and-miss you cannot depend on it to be of good quality, on time, accurate, etc:
The trains are often late, so getting to work on time is a fairly hit-and-miss affair.

22.make a splash (v.)to become suddenly very successful or very well known:
Jodie Foster made quite a splash in the film 'Taxi Driver'.

23.point out (v.)If you point out an object or place, you make people look at it or show them where it is.
They kept standing up to take pictures and point things out to each other...
They'd already driven along the wharf so that she could point out her father's boat.

24.hot spot (n.)a place where war or other fighting is likely to happen:
The border has become a major hot spot.

25.ethnic (a.)of a national or racial group of people:
A question on ethnic origin was included in the census.
The factory's workforce reflects the ethnic mix from which it draws its labour.
Conflicts between the different ethnic groups in the country exploded into civil war.

26.pagan (a.)belonging to a religion which worships many gods, especially one which existed before the main world religions:
a pagan religion
The Easter egg has both pagan and Christian origins.

27.predominate (a.)more noticeable or important, or larger in number, than others:
Research forms the predominant part of my job.
Dancers have a predominant role in this performance.

28.erupt (v.)to explode or burst out suddenly:
At the end of a hot summer, violence erupted in the inner cities.
Since the volcano last erupted, many houses have been built in a dangerous position on its slopes.

29.venerable (a.)deserving respect because of age, high position or religious or historical importance:
a venerable tradition/company/family

30.flourish (v.)to grow or develop successfully:
My tomatoes are flourishing this summer - it must be the warm weather.
Watercolour painting began to flourish in Britain around 1750.

31.confine (v.)to limit an activity, person or problem in some way:
Let's confine our discussion to the matter in question, please!
Please confine your use of the telephone to business calls.
By closing the infected farms we're hoping to confine the disease to the north of the region (= stop it from spreading to other areas).

32.envelop (v.)to cover or surround something completely:
The graveyard looked ghostly, enveloped in mist.

33.predecessor (n.)someone who had a job or a position before someone else, or something which comes before another thing in time or in a series:
My predecessor worked in this job for twelve years.

34.upper-crust (n.)The upper crust are the upper classes. (INFORMAL)
...the kind of lifestyle of the privileged upper crust.

35.awash (a.)covered with a liquid, especially water:
By the time I discovered the problem, the floor was awash.

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1.ulterior (a.)ulterior motive/reason/purpose, etc. a secret purpose or reason for doing something:
He claims he just wants to help Lisa but I suspect he has an ulterior motive.

2.invariably (adv.)always:
The train is invariably late.

3.quintessential (a.)being the most typical example or most important part of something:
Roasted garlic with sheep's milk cheese is the quintessential Corsican meal.

4.lurch (v.)to move in an irregular way, especially making sudden movements backwards or forwards or from side to side:
The train lurched forward and some of the people standing fell over.

5.renegade (n.)a person who has changed their feelings of support and duty from one political, religious, national, etc. group to a new one:
A band of renegades had captured the prince and were holding him to ransom.

6.paraphernalia (n.)all the objects needed for or connected with a particular activity:
We sell pots, gloves, seeds and other gardening paraphernalia.
Bags of cocaine and all sorts of drug paraphernalia were seized at the airport.

7.din (n.)a loud unpleasant confused noise which lasts for a long time:
the din of the traffic
I had to shout to make myself heard above the din.

8.indescribable (a.)impossible to describe, especially because of being extremely good or bad:
a scene of indescribable beauty
The pain was indescribable.

9.debilitating (a.)making someone physically or mentally weak:
a debilitating illness/disease/condition

10.hereditary (a.)(of characteristics or diseases) passed from the genes of a parent to a child, or (of titles and positions in society) passed from parent to a child 

as a right:
a hereditary disease
Depression is often hereditary.
It is a hereditary title, so Mark Howard will become Sir Mark Howard on his father's death.

11.dilate (n.)to (cause a part of the body to) become wider or further open:
The pupils of the eyes dilate as darkness increases.
This drug will dilate the arteries.

12.comprehensive (a.)complete and including everything that is necessary:
We offer you a comprehensive training in all aspects of the business.
Is this list comprehensive or are there some names missing?

13.front (n.)the part of a building, object or person's body which faces forward or which is most often seen or used:
The front of the museum is very impressive.
He spilt soup all down his front.
He was lying on his front.

14.bound (a.)certain or extremely likely to happen:
[+ to infinitive] You're bound to forget people's names occasionally.
You're bound to feel nervous about your interview.
These two young musicians are bound for international success (= are certain to be successful).

15.team up (v.)to join another person, or form a group with other people, in order to do something together:
They teamed up for a charity performance in July.

16.pains (n.)be at pains to do sth to make a lot of effort to do something:
She is at pains to point out how much work she has done.

17.scramble (v.)[I usually + adverb or preposition] to move or climb quickly but with difficulty, often using your hands to help you:
She scrambled up the steep hillside and over the rocks.
He scrambled into his clothes (= put them on quickly) and raced to fetch a doctor.
As the burning plane landed, the terrified passengers scrambled for the door (= tried to reach the door quickly).

18.rogue (a.)behaving in ways that are not expected or not normal, often in a destructive way:
a rogue state
rogue cells

19.choke (v.)to fill something such as a road or pipe, so that nothing can pass through:
At lunchtime the streets were choked with traffic.

20.flunk (v.)to fail an exam or course of study:
I flunked my second year exams and was lucky not to be thrown out of college.

21.raucous (a.)loud and unpleasant:
I heard the raucous call of the crows.
Raucous laughter came from the next room.
The party was becoming rather raucous.

22.abort (v.)to cause something to stop or fail before it begins or before it is complete:
The plan/flight had to be aborted at the last minute.

23.incorporate (v.)to include something as part of something larger:
Suggestions from the survey have been incorporated into/in the final design.
This aircraft incorporates several new safety features.

24.seasoned(a.)having a lot of experience of doing something and therefore knowing how to do it well:
a seasoned traveller
a seasoned campaigner for human rights

25.presto (n.)just before they finish a magic trick, for telling the audience they are going to be surprised

26.barter (v.)to exchange goods for other things rather than for money:
He bartered his stamp collection for her comics.
We spent a whole hour bartering with stallholders for souvenirs.

27.mentor (n.)a person who gives another person help and advice over a period of time and often also teaches them how to do their job

28.tie (v.)be tied to If you are tied to a job, place or person, you are forced to stay with them:
I felt tied to the job while I had a mortgage to pay.

29.tad (n.)a tad a little, slightly:
The fish was OK, but the chips were a tad greasy.

30.spell out (v.)If you spell something out, you explain it in detail or in a very clear way.
Be assertive and spell out exactly how you feel...
How many times do I have to spell it out?

31.glean (v.)to collect information in small amounts and often with difficulty:
From what I was able to glean, the news isn't good.
They're leaving on Tuesday - I managed to glean that much (from them).

32.solicit (v.)to ask someone for money, information or help:
to solicit donations for a charity
It is illegal for public officials to solicit gifts or money in exchange for favours.

33.folklore (n.)the traditional stories and culture of a group of people:
Her books are often based on folklore and fairy-tales.
In Irish folklore, the leprechaun had a large piece of gold.
Arguments between directors and stars are part of the folklore of Hollywood.

34.swoop (v.)to move very quickly and easily through the air, especially down from a height in order to attack:
The eagle swooped down to snatch a young rabbit.

35.crawl (n.)a very slow speed:
Traffic moved forward at a crawl.

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1.ramp (n.)an artificial slope:
I pushed the wheelchair up the ramp and into the supermarket.

2.cut off (v.)to remove a part of something to make it smaller or shorter, using a sharp tool such as a knife:
Remember to cut off the fat before you fry the steak.

3.calling (n.)a strong desire to do a job, usually one which is socially valuable:
I'm glad she's going into medicine. It's a very worthy calling.

4.articulate (a.)able to express thoughts and feelings easily and clearly, or showing this quality:
an intelligent and highly articulate young woman

5.spin off (v.)To spin off or spin off something such as a company means to create a new company that is separate from the original organization. (BUSINESS)
He rescued the company and later spun off its textile division into a separate company...
Corven plans to help large companies spin out smaller, entrepreneurial firms.

6.impersonation (n.)to intentionally copy another person's characteristics, such as their behaviour, speech, appearance or facial expressions, especially to make people laugh:
She's the woman who impersonates the Queen on TV.

7.homage (n.)deep respect and often praise shown for a person or god:
On this occasion we pay homage to him for his achievements.

8.persona (n.)the particular type of character that a person seems to have, which is often different from their real or private character:
He had a shy, retiring side to his personality that was completely at odds with his public persona.

9.derive (v.)derive sth from sth to get or obtain something from something else:
The institute derives all its money from foreign investments.
She derives great pleasure/satisfaction from playing the violin.

10.detach (v.)to separate or remove something from something else that it is connected to:
You can detach the hood if you prefer the coat without it.
Detach the lower part of the form from this letter and return it to the above address.

11.resilience (a.)able to quickly return to a previous good condition:
This rubber ball is very resilient and immediately springs back into shape.
She's a resilient girl - she won't be unhappy for long.

12.foist (v.)If you say that someone foists something on you, or foists it upon you, you dislike the way that they force you to listen to it or experience it.
I don't see my role as foisting my beliefs on them...
What this amounts to is foisting onto women the responsibility for reducing `the opportunities for crime' by changing their behaviour

13.distill (v.)to make a liquid stronger or purer by heating it until it changes to a gas and then cooling it so that it changes back into a liquid:
distilled water
Some strong alcoholic drinks such as whisky are made by distilling.

14.snip (v.)to cut something with scissors, usually with small quick cuts:
Have you seen the scissors? I want to snip off this loose thread.
I snipped out the article and gave it to her.

15.arbitrarily (a.)based on chance rather than being planned or based on reason:
arbitrary decision-making
What guided your choice of destination or was it arbitrary?

16.jibe (n.)an insulting remark that is intended to make someone look stupid:
Unlike many other politicians, he refuses to indulge in cheap jibes at other people's expense.

17.snoop (v.)to look around a place secretly, in order to discover things or find out information about someone or something:
People were sent out to snoop on rival businesses.
She's the sort of person you can imagine snooping about/around your room when you're not there.

18.furtive (a.)(of people) behaving secretly so that other people do not notice them, or (of actions) done secretly and often quickly so that people do not notice:
I saw him cast a furtive glance at the woman at the table to his right.
He made one or two furtive phone calls.

19.clog (v.)to (cause something to) become blocked or filled so that movement or activity is difficult:
The roads are clogged with holiday traffic.
Eating too much fat causes your arteries to clog (up).
Leaves are clogging (up) the drain.


21.crop up (v.)to happen or appear unexpectedly:
Her name keeps cropping up in conversation.

22.bombard (v.)to attack a place with continuous shooting or bombs:
The troops bombarded the city, killing and injuring hundreds.

23.sluggish (a.)moving or operating more slowly than usual and with less energy or power:
A heavy lunch makes me sluggish in the afternoon.

24.showcase (n.)a container with glass sides in which valuable or important objects are kept so that they can be looked at without being touched, damaged or stolena container with glass sides in which valuable or important objects are kept so that they can be looked at without being touched, damaged or stolen

25.powerhouse (n.)a country, organization or person with a lot of influence, power or energy:
Germany is an economic powerhouse.
The university is no longer the academic powerhouse that it once was.

26.prospective (n.)the possibility that something good might happen in the future:
Is there any prospect of the weather improving?

27.stronghold (n.)a building or position which is strongly defended:
a rebel stronghold
They captured the last stronghold of the presidential guard.

28.staggering (a.)very shocking and surprising:
It costs a staggering $50 000 per week to keep the museum open to the public.

29.gadgetry (n.)small tools or pieces of equipment that do useful or impressive things:
the latest electronic gadgetry

30.switcheroo (n.)a surprising variation 

31.impede (v.)to slow down or cause problems for the advancement or completion of something:
Although he's shy, it certainly hasn't impeded his career in any way.

32.emancipation (n.)the process of giving freedom and rights to someone: LIBERATION:
the emancipation of slaves

33.conduit (n.)a pipe or passage for water or electrical wires to go through

34.benchmark (n.)a level of quality which can be used as a standard when comparing other things:
Her outstanding performances set a new benchmark for singers throughout the world

35.guise (n.)the appearance of someone or something, especially when intended to deceive:
The men who arrived in the guise of drug dealers were actually undercover police officers.
The company has been accused of trying to sell their products under the guise of market research.

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1.discern (v.)to see, recognize or understand something that is not clear:
I could just discern a figure in the darkness.
It is difficult to discern any pattern in these figures.

2.hit (v.)to swing your hand or an object onto the surface of something so that it touches it, usually with force:
Teachers are not allowed to hit their pupils.
This type of glass won't shatter no matter how hard you hit it.

3.territory (n.)(an area of) land or sometimes sea, which is considered as belonging to or connected with a particular country or person:
He was shot down in enemy territory.
The UN is sending aid to the occupied territories.

4.context (n.)the situation within which something exists or happens, and that can help explain it:
It is important to see all the fighting and bloodshed in his plays in historical context.

5.multiplicity (n.)a large number or wide range (of something):
There is a multiplicity of fashion magazines to choose from.

6.provost (n.)UK (in some universities) the person in charge of a particular college:
the Provost of King's College, Cambridge

7.distinctive (a.)Something that is distinctive is easy to recognize because it is different from other things:
a distinctive smell/taste
She's got a very distinctive voice.

8.theorize (v.)to develop a set of ideas about something:
It's easy to theorize about what might have happened.

9.curate (n.)a job or period of time as a curate:
He's got a curacy in the North of England.

10.zillion (n.)an extremely large, but not a stated, number:
I've told you a zillion times/zillions of times not to do that.

11.arcane (a.)mysterious and known only by a few people:
He was the only person who understood all the arcane details of the agreement.
This argument may seem arcane to those not closely involved in the world of finance.

12.monograph (n.)a long article or a short book on a particular subject:
He has just published a monograph on Beethoven's symphonies.

13.precarious(adj.)in a dangerous state because not safe or firmly fixed
(eg.)The lorry was lodged in a very precarious way, with its front wheels hanging over the cliff.

14.codependency(n.)a psychological condition or a relationship in which a person is controlled or manipulated by another who is affected with a pathological condition (as an addiction to alcohol or heroin) broadly : dependence on the needs of or control by another

15.akin (adj.)similar; having some of the same qualities
(eg.)They speak a language akin to French.

16.bleed (v.)to lose blood:
Your arm is bleeding.
He was bleeding heavily.

17.vitals (n.)the most important organs of the body, especially the heart and lungs

18.route (n.)a particular way or direction between places:
The route we had planned took us right across Greece.
I live on a bus route so I can easily get to work.

19.merciless (a.)having or showing no mercy:
There are reports of merciless attacks on innocent civilians.
There was no shelter from the merciless (= very strong) heat.

20.beckon (v.)to move your hand or head in a way that tells someone to come nearer:
The customs official beckoned the woman to his counter.
"Hey you!", she called, beckoning me over with her finger.
He beckoned to me, as if he wanted to speak to me.

21.swaddle (v.)to wrap a baby tightly in cloth:
Swaddling a baby tightly in a blanket can be a good way to stop it crying.

22.exhilarating (a.)making you feel very excited and happy:
an exhilarating walk in the mountains

23.balmy (a.)(of weather) pleasantly warm:
a balmy summer evening

24.horde (n.)a large group of people:
Hordes of students on bikes made crossing the road difficult.

25.coax (v.)to persuade someone gently to do something or go somewhere, by being kind and patient, or by appearing to be:
Perhaps you could coax your father into taking you to the station.

26.mangle (v.)to destroy something by twisting it with force or tearing it into pieces so that its original form is completely changed:
My sweater got mangled in the washing machine.
His arm was mangled in the machine

27.pastoral (a.)describes the part of the work of teachers and priests that involves giving help and advice about personal matters:
A priest's pastoral duties include helping the poor and sick.

28.imposing (a.)having an appearance which looks important or causes admiration:
an imposing mansion
He was an imposing figure on stage.

29.renowned (a.)A person or place that is renowned for something, usually something good, is well known because of it.
The area is renowned for its Romanesque churches...

30.intertwine (v.)to twist or be twisted together, or to be connected so as to be difficult to separate:
The town's prosperity is inextricably intertwined with the fortunes of the factory.
The trees' branches intertwined to form a dark roof over the path.

31.anomaly (n.)a person or thing that is different from what is usual, or not in agreement with something else and therefore not satisfactory:
Statistical anomalies can make it difficult to compare economic data from one year to the next.

32.bolster (v.)to support or improve something or make it stronger:
More money is needed to bolster the industry.

33.sentiment (n.)a thought, opinion or idea based on a feeling about a situation, or a way of thinking about something:
Nationalist sentiment has increased in the area since the bombing.

34.hodgepodge (n.)a confused mixture of different things:
New Age thinking seems to be a hotchpotch of old and new ideas.

35.dynamic (a.)having a lot of ideas and enthusiasm; energetic and forceful:
She's young and dynamic and will be a great addition to the team.
We need a dynamic expansion of trade with other countries.

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1.literacy (n.)the ability to read and write:
Far more resources are needed to improve adult literacy.

2.apt (a.)suitable or right for a particular situation:
an apt comment/description

3.evaluate (v.)to judge or calculate the quality, importance, amount or value of something:
It's impossible to evaluate these results without knowing more about the research methods employed.

4.sludge (n.)soft wet earth or a substance that looks like this:
We seemed to spend the last mile of the walk knee-deep in sludge.

5.settlement (n.)an official agreement that finishes an argument:
It now seems unlikely that it will be possible to negotiate/reach a peaceful settlement of the conflict.
As part of their divorce settlement, Geoff agreed to let Polly keep the house.

6.legacy (n.)money or property that you receive from someone after they die:
An elderly cousin had left her a small legacy.

7.filter (n.)any of several types of equipment or devices for removing solids from liquids or gases, or for removing particular types of light:
a water filter
a dust filter
I like to experiment with different light filters on my camera.
Ozone is the earth's primary filter for ultraviolet radiation.

8.adolescent (a.)being or relating to an adolescent:
an adolescent boy
adolescent concerns/traumas/problems

9.paradox (n.)a situation or statement which seems impossible or is difficult to understand because it contains two opposite facts or characteristics:
[+ that] It's a curious paradox that drinking a lot of water can often make you feel thirsty.

10.credibility (n.)when someone can be believed or trusted:
His arrest for lewd behaviour seriously damaged his credibility as a religious leader.
He complained that we had tried to undermine his credibility within the company.

11.dupe (n.)someone who has been tricked:
an innocent dupe

12.environmentalist (n.)An environmentalist is a person who is concerned with protecting and preserving the natural environment, for example by preventing pollution.

13.swath (n.)a long strip or large area especially of land:
Huge swathes of rain forest are being cleared for farming and mining.

14.consign (v.)to send something to someone:
The goods have been consigned to you by air.

15.sophisticated (a.)having a good understanding of the way people behave and/or a good knowledge of culture and fashion:
She was slim, svelte and sophisticated.
I don't suppose I have any books that would suit your sophisticated tastes.
He was older than me and from London and I thought him very sophisticated.

16.teem (v.)to rain heavily:
It's been teeming down all day.
It's teeming with rain.

17.espresso (n.)strong coffee, or a cup of this, made by forcing hot water through crushed coffee beans and served without milk:
Do you like espresso?
Would you prefer an espresso or a cappuccino?

18.slang (n.)very informal language that is usually spoken rather than written, used especially by particular groups of people:
army slang
a slang expression
'Chicken' is slang for someone who isn't very brave.

19.pervade (v.)When qualities, characteristics or smells pervade a place or thing, they spread through it and are present in every part of it:
The film is a reflection of the violence that pervades American culture.

20.narrative (v.)to tell a story, often by reading aloud from a text, or to describe events as they happen:
Documentaries are often narrated by well-known actors.

21.perfunctory (a.)
done quickly, without taking care or interest:
His smile was perfunctory.

22.superficial (a.)not complete and involving only the most obvious things:
I thought that article was written at a very superficial level.
The documentary's treatment/analysis of the issues was very superficial.

23.confront (v.)to face, meet or deal with a difficult situation or person:
As she left the court, she was confronted by angry crowds who tried to block her way.
It's an issue we'll have to confront at some point, no matter how unpleasant it is.
I thought I would remain calm, but when I was confronted with/by the TV camera, I became very nervous.

24.archivist (n.)a collection of historical records relating to a place, organization or family:
archive film/footage/material
These old photographs should go in the family archives.

25.convert (v.)to (cause something or someone to) change in form, character or opinion:
Could we convert the small bedroom into a second bathroom?

26.decontextualize (v.)to remove from a context

27.expert (n.)a person with a high level of knowledge or skill; a specialist:
a gardening/medical expert
My mother is an expert at dress-making (= she does it very well).

28.forgo (v.)to not have or do something enjoyable:
I shall have to forgo the pleasure of seeing you this week.

29.digitize (v.)to digitize information means to turn it into a form that can be read easily by a computer.
The picture is digitised by a scanner.

30.ease (v.)to make or become less severe, difficult, unpleasant, painful, etc:
To ease the problem of overcrowding, new prisons will be built.

31.scope (n.)the range of a subject covered by a book, programme, discussion, class, etc:
I'm afraid that problem is beyond/outside the scope of my lecture.

32.formulate (v.)to develop all the details of a plan for doing something:
to formulate a new plan
to formulate legislation

33.robust (a.)(of a person or animal) strong and healthy, or (of an object or system) strong and unlikely to break or fail:
He looks robust and healthy enough.
a robust pair of walking boots
a robust economy

34.discipline (n.)training which produces obedience or self-control, often in the form of rules, and punishments if these are broken, or the obedience or self-control produced by this training:
parental/military/school discipline
There should be better discipline in schools.
I don't have enough (self) discipline to save money.

35.binding (n.)(especially of an agreement) which cannot be legally avoided or stopped:
a binding agreement
The contract wasn't legally binding.

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1.hop (v.)to jump on one foot or to move about in this way:
I tried to hop on my good foot while holding onto Jim.

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1.Fahrenheit (adj) (n.)
   Celsius (adj.) (n.)

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review the past
discuss the present

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1.IF Bread

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1.      五起動詞: 
feel,taste,look,smell,touch,sound…+  1)Adj

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1.thrift (n.)careful or economical use of money or resources:

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1.soph =wise ; wisdom

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board exams
a set of tests you take to be allowed to work in a particular area as a doctor, nurse, etc.:

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