ESL: English as a second language
EFL: English as a foreign language


When you're learning adjectives, try to remember the
antonyms and synonyms.

Vocabulary quizzes (ESL): two antonyms, one unrelated and one answer

speaking skills:
1. explain further more in details
2. give examples and personal touch
3. contrast will define yourself better

synecdoche 提喻法
: a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part, the special for the general or the general for the special, as in ten sail  for ten ships  or a Croesus  for a rich man.
anecdotal列舉法: consisting of short stories based on someone's
personal experience

container 貨櫃

前綴 pref.
ant.: dys-

1. European
2. euphonium: a large musical instrument made from brass, that you play by blowing into it
3. euphuism: Euphuism is a peculiar mannered style of English prose. It takes its name from a prose romance by John Lyly. It consists of a preciously ornate and sophisticated style, employing in deliberate excess a wide range of literary devices such as antitheses(對照面), alliterations(頭韻), repetition(重複)s and rhetorical questions. Classical learning and remote knowledge of all kinds are displayed. Euphuism was fashionable in the 1580s, especially in the Elizabethan court, but never previously or subsequently.
4. eugenics (n.) the study of methods of improving humans by allowing only carefully chosen people to reproduce(applied science, biosocial movement)
5. eulogy: a speech, piece of writing, poem, etc. containing great praise, especially for someone who recently died or stopped working

memorial service(funeral, eulogy, deceased or retired)
The term memorial service is often used to describe a secular(現世的) or non-religious funeral. A funeral is a religious service that is held with or without the body of the deceased present. A memorial service is usually a secular(現世的) service with or without the body present.

municipality (n. 市政當局) a town, city, or other small area, which has its own government to make decisions about local affairs, or the officials in that government

show your curtsy
**curtsy (v.n.) When a girl or woman curtsies, she bends quickly at the knees, with one foot in front of the other, while holding her skirt, especially to show respect to a king or queen, etc
e.g. She curtseyed to the Queen.

hunger (n.) the feeling you have when you need to eat
starvation (n.) a lack of food during a long period, often causing death
famine (n.) when there is not enough food for a great number of people, causing illness and death, or a particular period when this happens

Narrative Structures

**No conflict, no climax.

Martha Graham
Field: Dance and
Movement: Modern dance
Awards: Kennedy Center Honors (1979) 肯尼迪中心榮譽獎
Presidential Medal of Freedom (1976)
National Medal of Arts (1985)
Martha Graham (May 11, 1894 – April 1, 1991) was an American modern dancer and choreographer whose influence on dance has been compared with the influence Picasso had on modern visual arts,Stravinsky(史特拉芬斯基
) had on music, or Frank Lloyd Wright had on architecture.

She danced and choreographed for over seventy years. Graham was the first dancer ever to perform at the White House, travel abroad as a cultural ambassador, and receive the highest civilian award of the USA: the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In her lifetime she received honors ranging from the Key to the City of Paris to Japan's Imperial Order of the Precious Crown. She said, "I have spent all my life with dance and being a dancer. It's permitting life to use you in a very intense way. Sometimes it is not pleasant. Sometimes it is fearful. But nevertheless it is inevitable."

Oscar Wilde(Irish writer and poet, Dublin, The Picture of Dorian Gray, Salome 莎樂美, aestheticism 唯美主義, decadence 頹廢, beauty, Faustain 浮士德, gay )

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900) was an Irish writer and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular
playwrights in the early 1890s. Today he is remembered for his epigrams(諷刺短詩), plays and the circumstances of his imprisonment, followed by his early death.
Wilde's parents were successful Dublin intellectuals, and their son showed his intelligence early by becoming fluent in French and German. At university Wilde read Greats; he proved himself to be an outstanding classicist, first at Dublin, then at Oxford. He became known for his involvement in the rising philosophy of aestheticism, led by two of his tutors, Walter Pater and John Ruskin. He also profoundly explored Roman Catholicism, to which he would later convert on his deathbed. After university, Wilde moved to London into fashionable cultural and social circles. As a spokesman for aestheticism, he tried his hand at various literary activities: he published a book of poems, lectured in the United States of America and Canada on the new "English Renaissance in Art", and then returned to London where he worked prolifically(多產地) as a journalist. Known for his biting wit, flamboyant(華麗的) dress, and glittering conversation, Wilde had become one of the most well-known personalities of his day.
At the turn of the 1890s, he refined his ideas about the supremacy(至高無上地位) of art in a series of dialogues and essays, and incorporated(使...吸收融合) themes of decadence(頹廢), duplicity(口是心非), and beauty into his only novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890). The opportunity to construct aesthetic details precisely, and combine them with larger social themes, drew Wilde to write drama. He wrote Salome (1891) in French in Paris but it was refused a licence. Unperturbed(未受擾亂的), Wilde produced four society comedies in the early 1890s, which made him one of the most successful playwrights of late Victorian London.
At the height of his fame and success, whilst his masterpiece, The Importance of Being Earnest (1895), was still on stage in London, Wilde sued the father of his lover, Lord Alfred Douglas, for libel(誹謗罪). After a series of trials, Wilde was convicted of gross indecency(嚴重猥褻) with other men and imprisoned for two years, held to hard labour. In prison he wrote De Profundis (although written in 1897 it was first published in 1905), a long letter which discusses his spiritual journey through his trials, forming a dark counterpoint to his earlier philosophy of pleasure. Upon his release he left immediately for France, never to return to Ireland or Britain. There he wrote his last work, The Ballad of Reading Gaol (1898), a long poem commemorating the harsh rhythms of prison life. He died destitute in Paris at the age of forty-six.

denouncement 悲劇收尾

The Human Seasons by John Keats
Four Seasons fill the measure of the year; 
    There are four seasons in the mind of man: 
He has his lusty Spring, when fancy clear 
    Takes in all beauty with an easy span: 
He has his Summer, when luxuriously 
    Spring's honied(甜如蜜的) cud(反芻食物) of youthful thought he loves 
To ruminate(反芻;沉思), and by such dreaming high 
    Is nearest unto heaven: quiet coves 
His soul has in its Autumn, when his wings 
    He furleth close; contented so to look 
On mists in idleness--to let fair things 
    Pass by unheeded as a threshold brook. 
He has his Winter too of pale misfeature, 
Or else he would forego his mortal nature. 

Salome莎樂美(聖經人物,Herodias之女)(Herodias, led to John the Baptist's death, tragedy by Oscar Wilde)

gospel 福音書
A gospel is an account, often written, that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth. In a more general sense the term "gospel" may refer to the Good News message of the New Testament. It is primarily used in reference to the four canonical(根據教會法的) gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. However, the term is also used to refer to the Apocryphal(作者不明的
probably not true, but believed by a lot of people to be true) gospels, the Non-canonical gospels, the Jewish gospels and the Gnostic gospels.

Book of Revelation
The Book of Revelation is the final book of the New Testament corpus. The title came into usage from the first word of the book in Koine Greek: apokalupsis, meaning "unveiling" or "revelation" (the author himself not having provided a title). It is also known as the Book of the Revelation of Saint John the Divine or the Apocalypse of John, (both in reference to its author) or the Book of the Revelation of Jesus Christ (in reference to its opening line) or simply Revelation, (often dubbed "Revelations" in contrast to the singular in the original Koine) or the Apocalypse. The word "apocalypse" is also used for other works of a similar nature, and the genre is known as apocalyptic literature. Such literature is "marked by distinctive literary features, particularly prediction of future events and accounts of visionary experiences or journeys to heaven, often involving vivid symbolism."[1] The Book of Revelation is the only apocalyptic document in the New Testament canon, though there are short apocalyptic passages in various places in the Gospels and the Epistles.[2]
Revelation brings together the worlds of heaven, earth, and hell in a final confrontation between the forces of good and evil.
Its characters and images are both real and symbolic, spiritual and material. Revelation's cryptic nature makes the book a source of controversy among scholars who try to interpret its meaning and its message. Nevertheless, it has not only endured, but captured the imagination of generations of Bible students, both professional and lay readers alike. The author, named John, has traditionally been identified with John the Apostle, to whom the Gospel of John is also attributed. Historical-critical scholars, however, generally conclude that the author did not also write the Gospel of John.[3][4] Most scholars think that Revelation was written near the end of the 1st century.

The Importance of Being Earnest
The Importance of Being Earnest, A Trivial Comedy for Serious People is a play by Oscar Wilde. First performed on 14 February 1895 at St. James's Theatre in London, it is a farcical(鬧劇滑稽的) comedy in which the protagonists maintain fictitious personae(小說中的人或腳色) in order to
escape burdensome social obligations. Working within the social conventions of late Victorian London, the play's major themes are the triviality(瑣事) with which it treats institutions as serious as marriage, and the resulting satire of Victorian ways. Contemporary reviews all praised the play's humour, though some were cautious about its explicit lack of social messages, while others foresaw the modern consensus that it was the culmination(頂點;高潮的到達) of Wilde's artistic career so far. Its high farce and witty dialogue have helped make The Importance of Being Earnest Wilde's most enduringly popular play.
The successful opening night marked the climax of Wilde's career but also heralded(宣報;預示...事情) his downfall.
The Marquess of Queensberry, father of Lord Alfred Douglas, an intimate friend of Wilde, planned to present Wilde a bouquet of rotten vegetables and disrupt the show. Wilde was tipped off(向...洩漏情報) and Queensberry was refused admission. Soon afterwards the feud came to a climax in court, and Wilde's new notoriety caused the play, despite its success, to be closed after just 86 performances. After imprisonment, he published the play from Paris but wrote no further comic or dramatic work. The Importance of Being Earnest has been revived many times since its premiere, and adapted for the cinema on three occasions: in The Importance of Being Earnest (1952), Dame Edith Evans reprised her celebrated interpretation of Lady Bracknell; The Importance of Being Earnest (1992) by Kurt Baker used an all-black cast; and Oliver Parker's The Importance of Being Earnest (2002) included material cut during the original stage production.

A Good Woman 美麗誘惑

A Good Woman is a 2004 drama film directed by Mike Barker. The screenplay by Howard Himelstein is based on the 1892 play Lady Windermere's Fan by Oscar Wilde. It is the third screen version of the work, following a 1925 Ernst Lubitsch silent film and Otto Preminger's 1949 adaptation entitled The Fan.

mutter  (v.) to speak quietly and in a low voice that is not easy to hear, often when you are anxious or complaining about something:
e.g. Stop muttering and speak up!
e.g. He was muttering (away) to himself.

sapphire (n.) a transparent, usually bright blue, precious stone
ruby (n.) a dark red jewel

The Happy Prince and Other Tales
The Happy Prince and Other Tales (also sometimes called The Happy Prince and Other Stories) is a collection of stories for children by Oscar Wilde first published in May 1888. It is most famous for The Happy Prince, the short tale of a metal statue who befriends a migratory(有遷移習慣的) bird. Together, they bring happiness to others, in life as well as in death.
The stories included in this collection are:

  • The Happy Prince
  • The Nightingale and the Rose
  • The Selfish Giant
  • The Devoted Friend
  • The Remarkable Rocket

The stories convey an appreciation for charity, compassion, love and beauty.

Foreshadowing: A device used in literature to create expectation or to set up an explanation of later developments
In Charles Dickens's Great Expectations, the graveyard encounter at the beginning of the novel between Pip and the escaped convict Magwitch foreshadows the baleful atmosphere and events that comprise much of the narrative.

reed  (n.) (the hollow stem of) any of various types of tall stiff grass-like plants growing together in groups near water
**reedy (a.)

moth (n.) an insect with wings which is similar to a butterfly, usually flies at night, and is attracted to light:

She is an angel of woman.

She's Always A Woman Lyrics
Artist(Band):Billy Joel

She can kill with a smile
She can wound with her eyes
She can ruin your faith with her casual lies
And she only reveals what she wants you to see
She hides like a child,
But she's always a woman to me

She can lead you to love
She can take you or leave you
She can ask for the truth
But she'll never believe you
And she'll take what you give her, as long as it's free
Yeah, she steals like a thief
But she's always a woman to me

Oh--she takes care of herself
She can wait if she wants
She's ahead of her time
Oh--and she never gives out
And she never gives in
She just changes her mind

And she'll promise you more
Than the Garden of Eden
Then she'll carelessly cut you
And laugh while you're bleedin'
But she'll bring out the best
And the worst you can be
Blame it all on yourself
Cause she's always a woman to me


Oh--she takes care of herself
She can wait if she wants
She's ahead of her time
Oh--and she never gives out
And she never gives in
She just changes her mind

She is frequently kind
And she's suddenly cruel
She can do as she pleases
She's nobody's fool
And she can't be convicted
She's earned her degree
And the most she will do
Is throw shadows at you
But she's always a woman to me


Bob Dylan Blowin' In The Wind Lyrics:
(Music and Lyrics by B. Dylan ©19xx) 

How many roads must a man walk down
Before they call him a man
How many seas must a white dove sail
Before she sleeps in the sand
How many times must the cannonballs fly
Before they are forever banned
The answer, my friend, is blowing in the wind
The answer is blowing in the wind

How many years must a mountain exist
Before it is washed to the sea
How many years can some people exist
Before they're allowed to be free
How many times can a man turn his head
And pretend that he just doesn't see
The answer, my friend, is blowing in the wind
The answer is blowing in the wind

How many times must a man look up
Before he can see the sky
How many ears must one man have
Before he can hear people cry
How many deaths will it take till he knows
That too many people have died
The answer, my friend, is blowing in the wind
The answer is blowing in the wind

Quiz on The Happy Prince

1. Shabby is the antonym for beautiful.
2. When someone is dying of hunger we say he is starving.
3. A box for dead body called a coffin.
4. Dried up flowers are withered.
5. A pharaoh is a title of a ruler in ancient Egypt.
6. To praise means to glorify.
7. A poor man who asks for money to live is a beggar.
8. A special chair where a king or a pharaoh sit on important occasions is called a throne.
9. An attic is a room just under the roof of a house.
10. An ibis is a bird.
11. A mayor works in a municipality.
12. A hanging piece of ice is called an icicle.
13. A playwright writes plays.
14. The act of bending the body in sign of respect is a curtsy.
15. Somebody who is unable to see is blind.

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